According to Hindu beliefs, it is considered that a temple was built in the early medieval era to commemorate the birthplace of Lord Rama. The debate was whether a temple was demolished or modified to create a mosque is known as Ayodhya Dispute.
Ayodhya Land Before Independence:
The first recorded history in the Ayodhya disputed in 1858. On November 30, 1858, Mohd Salim filed an FIR against a group of Nihang Sikhs.
They installed their Nishan and written “Ram” inside the Babri mosque. They also performed havan and puja. Sheetal Dubey was the station house officer of Avadh. The legal fight for Ayodhya began in 1885 when Mahanth Raghubar Das filed a suit against Secretary of State for India in Council in Faizabad.
In his suit, Das claimed that he was a mahanth and was located at the platform in the outer courtyard and should be permitted to construct a temple there.
District Judge of Faizabad decided to visit the spot before passing the order. Also, he later dismissed the appeal.
The religious background of the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid title dispute
According to the Ramayana, Lord Ram was born in Ayodhya to Queen Kaushalya and King Dasharatha. Ayodhya in present-day Uttar Pradesh identified the case.
An ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Ram existed in the place. It is one of the generals of the first Mughal emperor Babur who built the Babri Masjid (“Babur’s Mosque”) in 1528 in its place.
A series of archaeological excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in 1970, 1992 and 2003 in and around the disputed site have found proof in which a large Hindu complex existed on the site.
The exhumations by the Archaeological Survey of India were used as proof by the court that the preceding structure was a massive Hindu religious building.
Foundations of the present case:
Gopal Singh Visharad of the Hindu Maha Sabha became the first person to file a suit in India after independence in the case.
He filed a suit against five Muslims, state government, and the district magistrate of Faizabad. He was Praying for the right to conduct pooja in the inner courtyard. The civil judge passed an order of injunction and allowed the pooja the same day.
In 1961, Sunni Central Waqf Board along with all those defendants named. In the earlier suits, they filed the fourth suit in the court of civil judge, Faizabad. Praying for the removal of idols and handing over the possession of the mosque.
On March 20, 1963, the entire Hindu community can’t be represented by a few persons, said the court. It ordered a public notice to implead Hindu Maha Sabha, Arya Samaj, and Sanatan Dharma Sabha as defendants to represent the Hindu community.
On July 1, 1989, former Allahabad High Court Judge Deoki Nandan Agarwal filed the fifth suit as “next friend” of Ram Lala Virajman.
A Trust by the name ‘Shri Ram Janmbhoomi Teerth Kshetra’ has been registered with its registered office at R-20, Greater Kailash Part -1, New Delhi, 110048″.
On 8 January, the SC set up a five-judge bench to hear the title suit in Ayodhya. After 2 days, Justice UU Lalit rescued himself from the five-judge bench.
Ranjan Gogoi is the Chief Justice of India. He formed a five-judge bench under him. Together with Justice Ashok Bhushan, Justice Nazeer, Justice Bobde and Justice Chandrachud.
The bench proposed a court-monitored intervention. Former Supreme Court Judge Justice FM Kalifulla, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, and advocate Sriram Panchu were in the intervention panel. The mediation began on March 13 at Awadh University in Faizabad.
On August 2, the court decided to start a regular hearing from August 6. The apex court heard the case regularly for 40 days and in the last 11 days and the judgment reserved on 16th October.
Supreme Court delivered a landmark judgment in the Ayodhya land dispute case that will have far-reaching effects. The five-judge Supreme Court bench led by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi read out a unanimous judgment and ruled in favor of the Ram Janmabhoomi and said there will be Ram Mandir at the disputed site and Muslims will be given an alternate 5 acre land for their mosque.
Political leaders cutting across party lines have called for maintaining harmony. Here the statements are:
- PM Narendra Modi
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has asked Union ministers to be measured in their statements on matters related to Ayodhya’s case. He told the ministers to refrain from making unnecessary remarks on the issue.
“Mann ki Baat” is a radio program where PM Modi had recalled how the political parties and civil society stopped attempts to create fissures when the Allahabad High Court ruling on the disputed land in Ayodhya in 2010.
- Sri Sri Ravi Shankar
Sri Sri Ravi Shankar(spiritual leader) has said “I appeal to one and all to not entertain rumors. This is the time to exercise moderation and exhibit our values of brotherhood between communities”.
Mayawati, the chief of Bahujan Samaj Party said the Supreme Court verdict on Ayodhya matter must be respected. She tweeted:
Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath asked his ministers to refrain from making any controversial statements. Forwards of the Supreme Court verdict in the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute case in November.
- Sharad Pawar
Sharad Pawar, the NCP chief said “various forces” may try to take advantage of the situation and create fissure among communities. Communal harmony should be maintained.
In the prediction of the Supreme Court verdict in the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid title dispute case. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) has canceled all its official functions scheduled for November.
The RSS has asked its workers to abandon their touring schedules as well. Among the canceled official functions is a meeting of the top brass of the RSS in Haridwar that was scheduled between October 31 and November 4.
Attack on Babri Mosque triggered tensions across India
Jilani, who appeared as the “eyes and ears” to the Babri Masjid case said the central government forced the provincial government to remove idols from the mosque.
The Masjid will be rebuilt (Prime Minister Narasimha Rao assured) and thus “cases were canceled but we challenged it in Supreme Court and asked it to rescue the cases and our plea was accepted,” he said
BJP leader and former Madhya Pradesh CM, Uma Bharti, would be third on the list. Bharti owes her popularity to the Ram Janmabhoomi episode. She was also at the site on the critical day of demolition.
According to the charge sheet copy, she was yelling slogans like, “Ek dhakka aur do, Babri Masjid tod do”, “Masjid girao, Mandir bano, Babar ki aulad ko Pakistan bhagao” and “Jinnah bole Jai Shri Ram” etc, as reported by The Indian Express.
Bharti, the BJP party leader did take responsibility for the incident. However, she asserted that she had no hands in the destruction of the structure.
The first on the list is LK Advani, the BJP president, who in 1990 undertook a rath yatra. The two most important things of Rath Yatra –
The demolition of the disputed structure and the key factor for the rise of BJP. Advani was the chief leader of the yatra. He commenced his yatra, for the construction of Ram Mandir in Ayodhya, from Somnath, Gujarat.
The yatra at Ayodhya was not able to reach its final destination. Lalu Yadav had also instructed an arrest for Advani on the charges of spreading communal disharmony.
On the day of the demolition of Masjid, Advani was present at the site, who reportedly made inflammatory remarks. He motivated Karsevaks, who were present there, to go on the rampage.
Section 144 imposed in Ayodhya:
In Ayodhya, Section 144 has been imposed until December 28, 2019. The order will be booked under section 188 of the IPC.
The Ayodhya district magistrate has emerged directives disallowing people from making defamatory remarks against any religion, community, deities on social media platforms.
People have also been prohibited from holding any event regarding the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute. The administration has also banned media debates and has imposed restrictions on people gathering in the region.